1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It’s often unattainable to teach somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; however on-the-job training is ceaselessly the only type of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training will not be successful when used to avoid developing a training program, although it will be an effective a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to achieve many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning methods, are a lot criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present info to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed in the Nineteen Fifties, it was thought to be helpful only for basic subjects. At this time the method is used for skills as diverse as air site visitors control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can study at their own tempo, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Instructional alternatives could be quickly chosen to suit the student’s capabilities, and efficiency may be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Methods
Each television and film lengthen the range of skills that may be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that mix audiovisual systems corresponding to closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on » Sesame Street » illustrates the design and evaluation of one in every of television’s favorite children’s program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential traits of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and different forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that’s, they symbolize the real world’s operational equipment. The principle purpose of simulation, nevertheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce within the training those processes that will likely be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, together with to regulate the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and different learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games which were used to train officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Virtually all early enterprise games were designed to show basic business skills, however more recent games additionally embrace interpersonal skills. Monopoly could be considered the quintessential enterprise game for younger capitalists. It is probably the first place children discovered the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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