Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and علامات الحمل بولد we’re left with only some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren’t sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.
We know that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity – it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1
The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.
The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries that it is today.
Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.
There is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.
By selecting ‘Change Country from the chart, you can verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.