Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence isn’t conclusive and we’re only able to provide limited solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women’s longevity more than males, we aren’t sure how much each one contributes.

2 years agoWe have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn’t because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and تحاميل مهبلية relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.

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In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller

Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small but it has risen significantly over time.

If you select the option «Change country in the chart, you are able to verify that these two points also apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.

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